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Amniotic Band Syndrome

What is amniotic band syndrome?

Amniotic band syndrome is an uncommon condition caused by strands of the amniotic sac that separate and entangle digits, limns, or other parts of the fetus.   

A baby suffering from ABS obstructs the development of the baby by limiting blood supply to certain body parts.  ABS can cause physical disabilities and congenital deformities.

Other Names: Streeter anomaly, constriction band syndrome, amnion rupture sequence, ADAM Amniotic deformity adhesions mutilations, amniotic band constriction, and congenital constrictions bands.

What Are The Symptoms of Amniotic Band Syndrome

There are many signs and symptoms of amniotic band constriction. Here are some of the most common symptoms:

  • Cleft lip, which causes an abnormal gap in the face
  • Missing small fingers or toes
  • Congenital amputation
  • An arm or leg longer than the other
  • Defect of the chest
  • Defect of abdominal wall

Additional related congenital defects include radial club hand, clubfoot, neural tube defects, limb body wall complex, hemangioma, anencephaly,  congential constriction rings, amniotic band sequence, and myelomeningocele.

What Causes Amniotic Band Syndrome?

There are no exact reasons why a baby has developed amniotic band syndrome.  Case studies have shown determining factors such as hereditary or genetic. Other theories considered what causes amniotic band syndrome are the extrinsic and intrinsic ones.

The extrinsic theory consists of outside the fetus factors that result in amniotic band syndrome.  The extrinsic theory begins with a strand of tissue separate from the inner layer (amnion) of the amniotic sac.  

The amniotic band syndrome happens when the inner layer of the amniotic ruptures or tears.  The amniotic rupturing can disrupt the normal development of an embryo or fetus.

The intrinsic theory is when the amniotic band syndrome affects the blood flow. A baby suffering from amniotic band syndrome obstructs the development of the baby by limiting blood supply to certain body parts. 

What Are The Risk Factors of Amniotic Band Syndrome

  • Problem with previous or currently pregnancy
  • Abdominal injury
  • Chorionic villus sampling
  • Trauma during pregnancy
  • Smoking
  • Drug abuse during by the mother while pregnant
  • First time pregnancy

It Is Possible To Prevent Amniotic Band Syndrome?

There are no preventative measures that may be taken to prevent the development of amniotic band syndrome.

How Is Amniotic Band Syndrome Diagnosed?

In order to determined amniotic band syndrome the doctor has to perform a physical examination of the new born.  Other exams include test such as x-ray and MRI.

Amniotic Band Symptom Treatment And Management

The treatment for amniotic band symptoms depends on the severity.  Children who are affected with ABS will need a long-term care.  Here are some  of the most common procedures done for baby’s who have amniotic band syndrome.

  • Long-term physical therapy
  • Orthopedic surgery
  • Fetal surgery
  • Compression garments
  • Prosthetics
  • Reconstructive and plastic surgery

Amniotic Band Syndrome Complications

There are many complications that occur from fetal surgery. Many fetal surgeries have a high risk of death.

Amniotic Band Syndrome Incidence

The estimates of its incidence very widely, from one in 1,200.

Amniotic Band Syndrome Prognosis

The treatment for each baby is different based on the circumstances. The probability of getting ABS in your second pregnancy is extremely low.

Amniotic Band Syndrome ICD-9 and ICD-10 Codes

Its ICD-9 code is 762.8 while the ICD-10 is PO2.8.

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