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Hydrops Fetalis

Hydrops Fetalis Definition

Hydrops fetalis is a severe fetal condition described as the abnormal accumulation of fluid in 2 or more fetal compartments.  These compartments include ascites, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and skin edema. 

The condition described as severe edema, which is fluid buildup in the different fetal compartments. 

The condition usually gets diagnosed during the second trimester but in it can happen it the first and third trimester. It’s important to take Hydrops seriously since it can lead to developmental issues and death. 

What Causes Hydrops Fetalis?

Hydrops Fetalis (fetal hydrops) is a serious fetal condition when too much fluid leaves the bloodstream and goes into the tissues. 

  • Immune hydrops fetalis is a complication of a severe form of Rh incompatibility.
  • Non-immune hydrops fetalis occurs when a disease or medical condition upsets the body’s ability to manage fluid. 

What Are The Symptoms of Hydrops Fetalis?

Fetal Symptoms

  • Thickened placenta
  • Extremely high amniotic fluids
  • Enlarged heart
  • Enlarged liver or spleen
  • Abnormal fluid accumulation in the abdomen fetus

Neonatal Symptoms

  • Failure of heart
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Severe swelling 
  • Pale skin coloring
  • Spleen enlargement
  • Liver enlargement
  • Neonatal jaundice
  • Neonatal Anemia

Hydrops Fetalis Prevention

There is not the way of preventing the non-immune and idiopathic forms since it’s quite rare.  

Many doctors might prescribe a medicine called RhoGAM usually helps prevent the chances of developing hydrops in the baby. 

How Is Hydrops Fetalis Diagnosed?

The history of the mother is always reviews, and the additional test is required to detect any signs of fetal edema.

  • Prenatal ultrasound
  • Fetal blood sampling
  • Amniocentesis
  • Maternal blood test

Hydrops Fetalis Differential Diagnosis

  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hepatitis b
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Hypospadias
  • Intussusception
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Omphalocele
  • Splenomegaly
  • Myelodysplasia
  • Neonatal Sepsis
  • Viral myocarditis
  • Ventricular tachycardia 
  • Hepatoblastoma
  • Pyruvate kinase deficiency
  • Sinus node dysfuction
  • Hypernatremia
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • Gaucher disease
  • Omphalocele
  • Syphilis
  • Thalassemia
  • Noonan syndrome
  • Patent ductus arteriosus
  • Methemoglobinemia
  • Mucopolysaccharidosis types IV, VI, and VII
  • Constrictive pericarditis
  • Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
  • Ventricular septal defect
  • Interrupted aortic arch
  • Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome
  • Ureteropelvic junction obstruction
  • Turner syndrome
  • Oliguria
  • Pleural effusion
  • Osteogenesis imperfect
  • Polycystic kidney disease
  • Junctional ectopic tachycardia
  • Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (supraventricular tachycardia)
  • Gastroschisis
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Thyroid Storm
  • Neonatal resuscitation
  • Posterior urethral valves
  • Williams’s syndrome
  • Herpes simplex virus infection
  • Hypoprothrombinemia
  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia and sequestration

Hydrops Fetalis Management And Treatment Options

The treatment options vary different factors from the medical history of the mother, gestational age, and the condition of the disorder. 

Hydrops Fetalis Complications

Maternal Complications

  • Miscarriage
  • Mirror syndrome

Fetal Complications 

  • Brain damage
  • Hearing loss from all the fluid buildup

Hydrops Fetalis Prognosis

The result, as a rule, fluctuates relying upon the seriousness of the issue and its unknown reasons.

Gentle cases frequently resolve all alone, particularly those where the etiology includes conditions like twin-to-twin transfusion disorder and heart arrhythmias.

The repeat danger of non-immune hydrops relies on upon the hidden activating elements.

Hydrops Fetalis Incidence

This form of complications occurs in about 1 in every 1,000 births.

Hydrops Fetalis ICD-9 and ICD-10 Codes

  • The ICD-9 codes used for this pregnancy complication are P56, P83.2 
  • The ICD-10 codes for hydrops are 773.3, 778.0.

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