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Oligohydramnios Definition:

Oligohydramnios refers to amniotic fluid volume that is significantly less than expected for gestational age.  The abnormal condition occurs during pregnancy from a lack of amniotic fluid, which surrounds the fetus.  The deficiency of amniotic fluid is the opposite of polyhydramnios.

What Causes Oligohydramnios?

There are several causes of oligohydramnios. The main cause is when the amniotic fluid is low.  It also happens when the fetus has a kidney failure.  If the fetus kidney has abnormalities, then it will decrease the amniotic fluid. It's essential for your baby's development that you get regular checkups and ultrasounds to check the health of your baby.

Fetal Causes

  • Ruptured Amniotic Membranes: during pregnancy  your membranes break (rupture) when a hole or tear develops in the fluid
  • Fetal Abnormalities: Detection of fetal abnormalities in an ultrasound offers women and their partners information that may help them better prepare for the birth of their child.
  • Genetic Factors

Placental Causes

  • Carrying Twins
  • Placental Abruption
  • Post Date Pregnancy
  • Maternal Complications
  • Drug Induced Causes
  • Birth Defects: Malformation or complete absence of an organ. 
  • Premature Birth: Having the baby before completing the 37th week of pregnancy.
  • Miscarriage: The death of the baby while in the uterus before completing 20 weeks of pregnancy. 

What Are The Symptoms of Oligohydramnios?

There are no detectable signs when a women is affected. If the amniotic sac is ruptured, the symptom would be extra wetness in the vaginal region due to leakage. 

What Are The Risk Factors of Oligohydramnios?

The amniotic fluid is vital for the development of digestive, lungs, limbs, and muscle system. 

These also factors play a major role that can increase the risk of having oligohydramnios:

  • Dehydration
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Lupus
  • Preeclampsia
  • Isoimmunization
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Ectopic Pregnancy

What Treatments Are Available For Low Amniotic Fluid

  • Amnio-infusion:  is a method in which isotonic fluid is instilled into the amniotic cavity in order to thin thick meconium that has passed into the amniotic fluid. It has been used to reduce meconium aspiration syndrome, though evidence of benefit is mixed. It also serves to possibly prevent or relieve cord compression.
  • Injection of fluid through amniocentesis: is a procedure used to obtain a small sample of the amniotifluid that surrounds the fetus during pregnancy.
  • Maternal rehydration, hyperextension, diabetes, and chronic hypoxia affect your fluid levels. 

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